Screening for secondary causes of hypertension is important, though often not thought of. Primary aldosteronism is the most common endocrine cause. The screening test is the aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR).Read More
HFpEF stands for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Commonly, it is defined as those with an LV ejection fraction of more than 50%, though varying definitions do exist.
This condition is poorly understood and is difficult to diagnose, because it is largely one of excluding other potential non cardiac causes of symptoms suggestive of HF.Read More
First line agents for hypertension are one of three classes:
- ACE inhibitors or Angiotensin receptor blockers
- Calcium channel blockers
Drug preference is mainly influenced by co-morbidities and contraindications, rather than a simple age cut-off.Read More
70-year-old asymptomatic man with hypertension but not cardiovascular disease presented for a routine check. His pulse rate was 40bpm. His son, aged 45, recently had an MI in Australia.
His medications include
Doxazosin 8mg OD
Metoprolol 95mg CR OD – since 2006
Cilazapril 5mg / Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5mg OD
ECG shows sinus bradycardia, with normal PR interval, QRS duration.Read More
65M with Type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycaemics but no proven coronary artery disease, BP 150/95mmHg despite 3 months of intensive lifestyle modifications, not currently on anti-hypertensives. Would you?
- Introduce low dose ACE inhibitors, with gradual up-titration
- Introduce combination ACE inhibitor / thiazide, with up-titration later onRead More
65M presented for a general health check, asymptomatic on systems enquiries. BP was 150/90mmHg with no other abnormalities. You decided to send him for an ambulatory blood pressure monitor to establish if more aggressive intervention is necessary. The report states that he is not a nocturnal dipper. His average diurnal BP was 145/85mmHg. Would medications be necessary? Is there anything else we should consider?Read More
In general practice (and in secondary care), we discuss at length lifestyle modifications that aid blood pressure lowering. But exactly how effective are the various strategies?
There are 5 things we could do to reduce our blood pressure, without medications.Read More
55M presented with first episode of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation proven on resting ECG in the GP practice. Echocardiogram showed structurally normal heart. The cardiologist decided to manage conservatively without starting anti-arrhythmics right now. Which of the following risk factor management should be part of his AF treatment and prevention?Read More
The ACC/AHA Hypertension Guidelines 2017 was released in the AHA meeting in Anaheim, Californiain November 2017.
While there were a lot of changes, I think it has simplified a lot of the complexities surrounding treatment threshold and goal.Read More
Traditionally, we are taught that laboratory tests have “normal ranges”, such as in haemoglobin or creatinine. However, this concept of “normal”, when applied in cholesterol measurement, often creates confusion amongst some clinicians and certainly in most patients.Read More